Synthetic modified RNA (modRNA) is a novel vector for gene transfer to the heart and other organs. modRNA can mediate strong, transient protein expression with minimal induction of the innate immune response and risk for genome integration. modRNA is already being used in several human clinical trials, and its use in basic and translational science is growing.
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Due to the complexity of preparing modRNA and the high cost of its reagents, there is a need for an improved, cost-efficient protocol to make modRNA. Here we show that changing the ratio between anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA) and N1-methyl-pseudouridine (N1mΨ), favoring ARCA over N1mΨ, significantly increases the yield per reaction, improves modRNA translation, and reduces its immunogenicity in vitro. This protocol will make modRNA preparation more accessible and financially affordable for basic and translational research.